Advantages of the Hybrid Circulator
Advantages of the Hybrid Circulator Introduction Circulators are 3 port components that couple power in a circulating fashion: power from port 1 is coupled to port 2, from port 2 to port 3, and from port 3 to port 1. Circulators are widely deployed in communications and radar systems because they enable a system architecture whereby a single antenna (or array of antennas) can be [...]
What is Faraday Rotation?
Faraday Rotation: What is it? Most microwave engineers have not studied ferrite components even if they have taken microwave engineering graduate classes. If you did take a microwave engineering course, the chapter about ferrimagnetic components was most likely near the end of the book, and you probably were glad of it! After all, every component up to that point was reciprocal – acting the same [...]
Choosing an Isolator for a Millimeter-Wave System
Choosing an Isolator for a Millimeter-Wave System Millimeter-wave (MMW) systems often employ isolators to suppress standing waves and achieve optimal performance. Commercial isolators provide good isolation, typically more than 20 dB across full waveguide bands at lower frequencies (under about 85 GHz), and they also tend to have low port reflections. However, at MMW frequencies there is a great divide in performance when it comes [...]